The state of Utah in the United States is home to lots of beautiful National Parks, & Bryce Canyon National Park ranks as three of the most magnificent & awe inspiring.Bryce Canyon isn't a canyon. it is the spectacular edge of the Paunsaugunt Plateau, a place where intricately carved towers & archways of stone shimmer in a dazzling array of colour under the bright sun.The rock in Bryce Canyon is composed of layer after layer of sediment deposits, deposited millions of years ago when the area was at the bottom of a lake. Now the Paria River has exposed the layers, allowing a detailed history of the lake to be determined.15 million years ago the earth in this region began to shift, forming a series of plateaus. The Paunsaugunt is an extensive plateau, with the Paria River gradually eroding away the edge to form Bryce Canyon.The Park itself was established in 1924, & was named after an early settler in the area, Ebenezer Bryce. they emigrated from Scotland, married a local girl then moved southwards in stages, building sawmills as they went.In the mid 1870s they reached the Paria River, where they & his relatives settled for a number of years. It was at this time that Bryce made his immortal comment about Bryce Canyon - they called it "one hell of a place to lose a cow".The area remained basically undiscovered by European tourists, the first guest houses only being constructed around the time when the park was officially established. Luckily this has led to Bryce Canyon being an area of largely unspoiled beauty, as well as the enormous scientific value of the historic information trapped in its pinnacles & spires.The canyon is by no means a stagnant place - the rim recedes by an average of about a foot every 50 years, & in this ever changing scene it is water that plays the most vital role in the shaping & eventual destruction of the magnificent scenery.Because the rock was laid down in layers, there is a variation in the hardness of the rock formed. When water runoff trickles across the rock, some areas erode rapidly whereas others hold firm. This variation in erosion speed causes the formation of pinnacles, or "hoodoos" of stable rock. In some places the water seeps down through cracks & eats out holes beneath the surface. When the side rock erodes away, an archway is left behind. Eventually the arch collapses, leaving one more pillars to join the rest. The ever changing vista of colours, spires, walls & archways is spectacular at any season, & the park is open all year round.Here you can wander through the Queen's Garden, or gaze up at Queen Victoria herself surveying the 'flowers' in her garden. Some of the most awe inspiring lookouts are situated in this area, including Sunset Point & Inspiration Point - a must for any visitor.In the warmer months there's lots of trails for the visitor to explore, ranging from easy strolls to hard hikes. Some of the best trails are located in the Bryce Amphitheatre, located near the entry to the park.Summer months can cause temperatures in the base of the canyon to soar, so it is very important to be prepared for the heat, & over lots of water.Walkers can also follow the Fairyland, Riggs Spring & Under-the-Rim trails, which are longer, but permit more opportunities to see the different elements of the park at close quarters.For the energetic, it is possible to cross-country ski in a number of areas in the park, & on some trails it is possible to go snowshoeing instead of hiking.In winter the roads are opened between snowfalls, allowing a different perspective of the park. Snow capped pinnacles stand out sharply against the background of white snow & dark green trees. The air is also cleaner, allowing visitors to see great distances.If you require a slightly different view of the park, it is possible to explore the park in a 1930 limousine. Alternatively, you can rent a horse on an hourly basis to trek some of the better trails. there is lots of interest to explore in the park, apart from the marvellous scenery of the 'silent city', as the hoodoos are sometimes called. The park also contains a large variety of plants & wildlife, including meadows & forests.Some bears & mountain lions also enter the park occasionally, but are seldom seen by tourists.Ground squirrels abound near the viewing areas, & their antics are to distract the visitor's eyes from the scenery. On quiet mornings & evenings it is also possible to see deer, elk & antelope grazing on the meadows.Bryce Canyon is a hidden jewel, thoroughly deserving to be as widely known as its southern neighbour, the Grand Canyon. Include it on your itinerary, & you definitely won't be disappointed.In fact, you may be completely overwhelmed by the fascinating & awe inspiring beauty of Bryce Canyon, like every other visitor.
Worlds Most Popular Scuba Diving - Similan, ThailandSimilan, Thailand - Mu Koh Similan National Park has been rated first by the U. S. publication Skin Diving of the top ten dive sites in the world. The Similan Islands in the heart of the Andaman Sea are indeed unparelled in their exotic beauty. If planning a visit, keep in mind that anytime between December to April is recommended, with the best month being March, because the monsoons are over and the water is clear. Similan is really the Malaysian word for nine, as there are nine islands in the Similan group: Kohh Bangu, Koh Similan, Hin Huwagralok, Koh Payu, Koh Ha, Kohh Hok, Kohh Miang, Kohh Payan, Kohh Payang, and Kohh Huyong. Shark Ridge Rocks are pinnacle rocks near Kohh Payan or Kohh Sam (Three). Here, several species of sharks like Silvertip, Leopard Shark, and Reef White tip can be found.Fantasy Rocks are another scuba-diving site consisting of several large rocks totally covered with soft corals, sea fans, and many species of fish. They are located to the west of Kohh Similan or Kohh Paed (Eight), and are one of the more popular diving sites.The beach here is white like powder. Snorkeling is possible from here. To the right is found the towering 'Sailing Rock', a symbol of Kohh Similan which can be climbed in order to take in a panoramic view of the bay.Christmas Point Rocks are another scuba diving site, a complex of rocks full of soft corals and "sea fans" found to the northwest of Kohh Ba-ngu or Kohh Kao (Nine).Kohh Bon is located between the Similan Islands and Kohh Tachai. There is no beach and the underwater scenery here is not as beautiful as elsewhere, but scuba divers may often find Manta Rays.Kohh Tachai is located at the northernmost tip of the park. There is a beautiful white beach on the island but no accommodation. The water is suitable for "scuba diving" , and Whale Shark is often found here.Visit Greeting Thailand for more information. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org://www.greetingthailand.com
Copyright 2006 Bravos DirectEver wondered how that little motor on the front of your model airplane delivers such amazing power?Model airplane engines come in many shapes and sizes from many manufacturers. By far the most common for the moment is the 2-stroke 'glow' engine though the modern electric motor is making rapid inroads as it gains in popularity.The 2-stroke "model airplane" engine is an internal combustion engine burning 'glow' or 'nitro' fuel consisting mostly of alcohol with nitromethane to help combustion and castor oil for lubrication of the metal parts. There are also 4-stroke glow engines that work on the 4-stroke principle. While these two types of "model airplane engine" produce the same result, and use the same fuel, they accomplish this goal in very different ways and have different characteristics. For the moment we're just going to consider the 2-stroke engine.RC model airplane engines working on a two stroke principle means that there is fuel ignition on every second stroke of the piston in the cylinder. When the piston is on its down stroke down the cylinder, fuel and air will enter the combustion chamber between the top of the piston and the cylinder head. When the piston reaches the bottom of its stroke and starts to rise again it then compresses the fuel/air mixture in the rapidly shrinking volume of the combustion chamber. The fuel/air mixture is ignited by the glow plug just as the piston reaches the end of it's upstroke. The glow plug is so called because it contains a platinum wire that continues to glow from the heat of the last fuel ignition. The new explosion forces the piston back into the next down stroke.This sounds very simple but the clever part is that the upper, combustion chamber part of the cylinder above the piston and the crankcase below the piston are connected not only by the cylinder bore but also by a transfer port which enables gases to move from the crankcase to the combustion chamber. By careful design, the inlet valve for taking in fresh fuel/air mixture, the exhaust valve for expulsion of exhaust gases and the transfer port which allows movement of the fuel/air mixture from the crankcase to the combustion chamber are always open or closed at the right time by the wall of the piston as it travels up and down the cylinder bore.The down stroke is created by the rapid expansion of the exhaust gases after the fuel/air mixture ignites. Both the exhaust port and the transfer port are opened as the piston descends in the cylinder bore while the fuel/air inlet is closed. The downward movement of the piston now compresses the fuel/air mixture drawn into the crankcase on the previous upstroke which now rushes up the transfer port into the combustion chamber and helps force out the exhaust gases from that space - and the cycle begins again.As the speed of this cycle increases, the power output of your RC model airplane engine is increased. Due to it's simplicity the 2-stroke engine can operate to high RPM and high power outputs. Unfortunately, this also means high noise levels.The 2-stroke engine in all it's forms is a very elegant engineering solution. The piston takes the place of 3 mechanical valves, a timing mechanism and a fuel pump - thereby keeping the weight down and reliability up. In addition, the glow plug combustion method allows the battery to be removed after starting thereby dramatically reducing the weight so it is easy to see why the glow 2-stroke has been so popular for so long.The 2-stroke glow engine is only one of a number of choices you can make for your model airplane engine. Where outright power and speed are the primary requirement it has little competition and the simplicity and high volume production has led to highly reliable and cost effective engines being developed. Noise is really the only negative consideration.So for your next project balance the cost, maintenance, exhaust noise level, and weight in order to choose the right sort of model airplane engine for your project.
One Lucky Stag Has a Taste of Heaven in Estonias Thumping Capital Theres a lot to love about a stag weekend in Tallinn. Right now all I could hear was Void you like another beer?, and all I could see was row upon row of straight, white, perfect Estonian teeth and long, shiny, blonde Estonian hair. The waitress, and owner of said teeth and hair, was asking for the trillionth time: Beer. Do-you-want-another-one? Even though it was my stag night which made me emperor and overlord of all I surveyed, I couldnt even muster eye contact and so just nervously spluttered out a well rehearsed Jah! Sweet. Beer in the form of the fine Le Coq Premium would be soon on its way and, well, I had to admit that my Estonian was coming along beautifully. But before the beer could even be pulled from the beer pulling thing, before Miss Estonia could even return to service our table, the lights dimmed and there was a venerable hush. And after what had to be the slowest minute known to man, a vision appeared like a phoenix rising. Or something. Just 23 and a half hours earlier I had been arguing about the price of insulation batts in Reading Argos and now, before me stood or rather lay -a moveable feast in every sense of the word. She was Tanya. She was 22. She was from Haapsalu. Or was it Hishpalaa? Somewhere west of the capital. She was naked. She had our dinner strategically placed on her 22 year old perfect Estonian body. She was very talented. In Japan, this practice is called nyotaimori and the name literally means adorned body of a woman and for the next three hours the unlimited beer flowed and me and my twenty-nine best friends wined, dined and hatched plans about escaping management consultancy and setting up our own bar in down town Tallinn. Or maybe we could open up an English school. Or an academy for young ladies wanting to be learned in the ways of contemporary British life. My Tallinn "stag weekend" was only half a day old and it was fast surpassing Skegness as my holiday destination of choice. We toasted to the Saku the finest Estonian lager to pass my lips, to Reading topping the table and to Tanyas left thigh. We toasted to Tallinns remarkable ability to produce the highest concentration of the fit birds per square mile and, of course to me and my upcoming nuptials. We were still toasting when we left Tanya half covered in dessert and fig leaves and little else. We were toasting the magnificent delights of Tanyas right thigh in a rather loud manner, lager and le Coqs in hand, when we noticed what seemed to be a troupe of troopers walking in our general direction.Crazy-Tallinn-street-cleaners-who-just-couldnt-part-with-their-soviet-army-fatigues (to them it would always be 1989). We toasted to 1989. To Berlin. To Gorbachev. To Reagan. To Yeltsin, who we were all sure was very certain of the infinite native delights of Estonia. To the greatest stag weekend ever. Thank you Tanya, wherever you may be, Tanan and Head ood! Thank you and good night. I will never look at grilled Greek pork in the same way again. Peter Finlay spoke to Amalia Illgner. We are pleased to announce that Peter is now a happily married man with a house full of white goods in Reading. Special Thanks to Chillisauce for organizing Peter's Tallinn stag weekend.Now that's what we like to call service!
A visit to Wallowa Lake Tramway in Oregon is an experience you will never forget. That's because the views are incredible and the ascent is so amazing that you will always have this memory guarded in your mind's eye. In 1970 the gondola ride opened in Wallowa County and it became the attraction that was most popular. Since then tourists who ride the tram up the 3700 feet to Mt. Howard's summit report back that it is an experience of a lifetime and one that will never be forgotten. In fact, many tourists come back time and time again to bring family members and friends or to experience the wonder of this trip one more time. If you are wondering what the Wallowa Lake Tramway is all about just imagine sliding into a gondola and have it take you up 3700 feet to the summit of a mountain. Imagine the beautiful views you will encounter along the way and the joy you will experience from the bird's eye view.Some of the things you will see as you are ascending to the summit include the blue waters of Wallowa Lake as well as the rugged peaks that stick out from the Eagle Cap Wilderness area. The ride up is amazing, but when you reach the summit you will have a new experience that won't be soon forgotten as well. At the summit you will encounter temperatures that are a bit cooler not to mention beautiful plants and vegetation. Most of the plants and vegetation only grow in alpine areas so you may not be familiar with all the plants. There are lots of trails you can walk along as well to learn a little bit more about the area. There are signs that tell you the names of plants as well as any other important information you might need to know. So, as you are walking all your questions will be answered and you will learn quite a lot about the area. If you don't want to walk down a path then you might enjoy hanging out at the Summit Grill and Alpine patio. There you can enjoy anything from a nice beverage to a full meal while basking in the beautiful views that will literally take your breath away. Once you see this kind of beauty you will always remember it and may even want to return for family reunions, weddings, picnics, or any other outing.There is a website that has great information on USA Vacations and Unique Travel Spots Listed State By State and Season, the website is called: Seasonal Vacation Spots, and can be found at this url:http://www.seasonalvacationspots.comBy Robert W. BenjaminCopyright 2007 You may publish this article in your ezine, newsletter, or on your web site as long as it is reprinted in its entirety and without modification except for formatting needs or grammar corrections.